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WORD CLASSES AND MORPHOLOGY

Nouns and Pronouns

BASICS

Nouns are never inflected hence always stay unchanged. There are no articles ("a" or "the"). Suffixes can be added to change the meaning of the word or a sentence. Further, there is no grammatical gender in Klingon.

NUMBERS

To state the plural of a word, the appropriate suffix is attached to the noun. If context is clear, you do not need the suffix. There are three types of plural suffixes: one for beings capable of speech, one for body parts, and one for anything else.

Plural Suffixes
Plural Prefix Klingon example English translation
capable of speech -pu' tlhInganpu' Klingons
body parts -Du' qamDu' feet
things -mey balmey bottles



Verbs

BASICS

Verbs are never changed for tense, gender, plural or anything else. They are combined with prefixes, indicating who is doing something and suffixes indicating how something happens.

PREFIXES

There is a big set of prefixes for nearly every possible combination of object and subject. There also a few prefixes with no object, for sentences like "I eat". The third person singular (he, she and it) and plural (they) takes no suffix at all, therefore it is called the "zero-prefix" (ø).

prefixes with no object
Pronoun Prefix Verb Klingon example English translation
I jI- Sop jISop I eat
you bI- leng bIleng you travel
he/she/it ø Suv Suv he fights
we ma- 'oj ma'oj we are thirsty
you (pl.) Su- bom Subom you all sing
they ø Qong Qong they sleep


SYNTAX


The Klingon sentence order is what makes it look so difficult to learn. On the other hand, it makes it a lot easier, because the word order is never changed. It is always the following:
object - verb - subject

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